CY6109 : Photochemistry

Principles and concepts: An overview of: Laws of photochemistry, Beer-Lambert law, electronic energy levels, atomic and molecular term symbols, singlet-triplet state, intensity and strength of electronic transition, selection rules for electronic transition, Jablonski diagram and photophysical processes, Franck-Condon principle. Excited state lifetime, steady state and time resolved emission, factors affecting excited state energy: solvent effect, TICT.

Excited state kinetics, quantum yield expressions, excimer and exciplex, kinetics of luminescence quenching: static and dynamic, Stern-Volmer analysis, deviation from Stern-Volmer kinetics. Photoinduced electron transfer rates, free energy dependence of electron transfer on rate, Photoinduced energy transfer, FRET, rate and efficiency calculation of FRET.

Methods: Measurement of fluorescence and phosphorescence and lifetimes. Introduction to time-resolved techniques for absorption and emission measurements, detection and kinetics of reactive intermediates. Examples of low temperature matrix isolation of reactive intermediates.

Reactions: Photochemistry of alkene, cis-trans isomerization, photocycloaddition reactions of alkene, photochemical electrocyclic and sigmatropic reactions, di-pi-methane rearrangment, electron transfer mediated reactions of alkene. Photochemistry of carbonyl compounds, Norrish type I and type II reactions, enone and dienone cycloadditions. Photochemistry of aromatic systems, electron transfer and nucleophilic substitution reactions. Photochemistry of nitro, azo and diazo compounds. Photochemistry involving molecular oxygen, generation and reactions of singlet oxygen. Photo-fragmentation reactions (Barton, Hofmann-Loffler-Freytag)


Fluorescence based sensors – examples of molecular and supramolecular systems. Conversion of solar energy to chemical and other forms of energies, solar photovoltaic cell, basic principle and design of the cell.


  1. Fundamental of Photochemistry, K. K. Rohatgi-Mukherjee, New Age International (P) Ltd., New Delhi, 1986.
  2. Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 3rd, J. R. Lakowicz, Springer, New York, 2006.
  3. Fundamentals of Photoinduced Electron Transfer, G. J. Kavarnos, VCH publishers Inc., New York, 1993.
  4. Molecular Fluorescence: Principles and Applications, B. Valeur, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, 2002.
  5. Modern Molecular Photochemistry of Organic Molecules, N. J. Turro, V. Ramamurthy, J. C. Scaiano, University Science, Books, CA, 2010.
  6. Photochemical Synthesis, I. Ninomiya, T. Naito, Academic Press, New York, 1989.