CY6118 : Experimental Methods in Chemistry

Vacuum and Gas Pressure: Concepts of vacuum (Low, medium, high and ultra-high vacuum; vacuum pumps and gauges; pressure measurements; ); kinetic theory concepts (molecular density; mean free path of particles in the gas phase; incident molecular flux on surfaces; gas exposure; sticking coefficient; surface coverage; variation of parameters with pressure).

Over layers and Diffraction: Two-dimensional lattice; reciprocal space; over layer structure; low energy electron diffraction (LEED).

Imaging and Depth Profiling: Basic concepts in surface imaging; secondary electron microscopy (SEM); secondary Auger microscopy (SAM); scanning probe microscopy (SPM); scanning tunneling microscopy (STM); transmission electron microscopy (TEM); surface imaging; depth profiling. Associated techniques of microscopy and spectroscopy.

Chemical Analysis: Non-destructive techniques: Wavelength and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (WDS and EDS); X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS); secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS); temperature programmed desorption (TPD); thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Destructive techniques:

Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS); inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES).

Electroanalytical Techniques: Voltametry; coulometry; amperometry; potentiometry; polarography; electrolytic conductivity; impedance spectroscopy.

Separation Methods: Normal and reversed phase liquid chromatography (NP- & RP-LC); Gas Chromatography (GC); GC-MS; High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC); Size-Exclusion Chromatography (SEC); Ion Chromatography (IC).

Reading assignments on: Quantitative measurements: Limit of detection, limit of quantification, sensitivity, calibration, interferences, sampling; Laboratory practice, laboratory automation.

Text Books:

  1. Wiesendanger, Scanning Probe Microscopy and Spectroscopy, Cambridge University Press, 1994.
  2. Frank A. Settle, Handbook of instrumental techniques for analytical chemistry, Prince Hall, New Jersey, 1997.
  3. W. Kolasinski, Surface science: Foundations of catalysis and nanoscience, John Wiley and Sons, West Susses, 2002.
  4. A. Skoog, D. M. West, F. J. Holler and S. R. Couch, Fundamentals of analytical chemistry. Brooks/ColeCengage learning, New Delhi, 2004.
  5. Atkins and J. de Paula, Atkins‘ physical chemistry, 8th Ed., Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2008.
  6. Pradeep, Nano: The essentials, McGraw-Hill Education, New Delhi, 2010.
  7. Scholz, Electroanalytical Methods, Springer, 2nd Ed., 2010.