Introduction to the Earth’s Atmosphere:
Evaluation of the Earth‘s atmosphere – Layers of atmosphere – Pressure and Temperature variations – Scaling of atmospheric processes.
Role of Chemical Compounds on Ozone budget:
Chemical composition of the Earth‘s atmosphere – Compounds containing Sulfur, Nitrogen, Carbon, Halogens – Atmospheric Ozone – Ozone loss – role of the chemical compounds – Atmospheric lifetimes – Theories – Determination of the lifetimes – Laser Induced Fluorescence Studies (LIF measurements) – Cavity Ring Down method; Radicals in the Earth‘s atmosphere – Ozone generation – Global warming – Global Warming Potential (GWP) – Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP)
Chemistry of Troposphere and Stratosphere:
Troposphere – Chemistry of hydroxyl radicals – Photochemical cycles of NO2, NO and O3 – Chemistry of NOx and carbon monoxide – Methane – Tropospheric reservoir molecules – H2O2, CH3OOH, HONO, PAN, Role of VOC and NO x in the ozone formation – Chemistry of VOCs – sulfur compounds – nitrogen compounds;
Stratosphere – Chapman mechanism – HOx cycle – Halogen cycles – Antarctic ozone hole – Polar stratospheric clouds – Heterogeneous stratospheric chemistry –
Global sulfur and carbon cycles – Role of H2O in both troposphere and the stratosphere.
Atmospheric Radiation and Photochemistry:
Radiation – Terrestrial and solar radiation – Energy balance for Earth and Atmosphere – Radiative flux – Actinic flux; Photochemistry – Absorption of radiation by atmospheric gases – Absorption by O2 and O3 – Photolysis rate as a function of altitude – Photodissociation of O3, NO2.
Aerosols and Other Physical Processes:
Aerosols – formation – Size distribution – Chemical composition – thermodynamics of aerosols; Nucleation – Classical theory of homogeneous nucleation – Experimental measurement of nucleation rates – heterogeneous nucleation; Wet and dry deposition.