Characteristics of fluorescence and phosphorescence emission, Time scale of excited state molecular processes in solution, Life times and quantum yields.
Steady state Fluorescence:
Basic instrumentation, Effects of solvents on fluorescence spectra (general and specific), The Lippert equation Biochemical applications of solvent effects: localization of membrane-bound and protein- bound fluorophores, Polarization of emission, Measurements of fluorescence Polarization, Extrinsic causes of fluorescence depolarization. Effect of rotational diffusion on fluorescence anisotropies: the perrin equation. Chemical and biochemical applications of anisotropy measurements.
Time-resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy:
Measurement of fluorescence lifetimes, instrumentation. mechanism and dynamics of solvent induced relaxation. Theories of fluorescence quenching. Radiative and nonradiative energy transfer. Applications. Phase-sensitive detection of fluorescence; Analysis of heterogeneous resonance by phase-sensitive detection. Time dependent decays of fluorescence anisotropy. Applications of Phosphorescence Spectroscopy: Fluorescence Line Narrowing Spectroscopy, Matrix Isolation Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Interactions and Kinetics of single molecules as observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Multidimensional Luminescence Spectroscopy and its applications in Analytical Chemistry.